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Friday, 2 December 2011

SEMANGAT BERKOBAR-KOBAR..BOLEH?!!

semangat nak update ape yang patut berkaitan dengan major..perkara terlintas kat minda..grammar je la..so saya update la serba sedikit topik berkaitan dengan "Grammar" untuk tatapan rakan - rakan seperjuangan..semoga dapat membantu sume yang searena saya TESL..

COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY


To show difference: more, less, fewer + than
To show no difference: as much as , as many as, as few as, as little as

AS + ADJECTIVE + AS


Usage

To compare people, places, events or things, when there is no difference, use as + adjective + as:

Examples

  • Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.
  • Moscow is as cold as St. Petersburg in the winter.
  • Ramona is as happy as Raphael.
  • Einstein is as famous as Darwin.
  • A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.

COMPARATIVE + THAN


To compare the difference between two people, things or events.

Examples

  • Mt. Everest is higher than Mt. Blanc.
  • Thailand is sunnier than Norway.
  • A car is more expensive than a bicycle.
  • Albert is more intelligent than Arthur.

NOT AS + ADJECTIVE + AS


Difference can also be shown by using not so/as ...as:

Examples

  • Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest
  • Norway is not as sunny as Thailand
  • A bicycle is not as expensive as a car
  • Arthur is not as intelligent as Albert

IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

These adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms:
Adjective Comparative Superlative
good
better best
bad
worse worst
little
less least
much
more most
far
further / farther furthest / farthest

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

FORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE

Using the comparative of adjectives in English is quite easy once you have understood the few simple rules that govern them.
Below you will find the rules with examples for each condition.
If you are not sure what a syllable or a consonant is - have a look here.
big, bigger, biggest

Rules

Number of syllables Comparative Superlative (see rule)
one syllable + -er + -est
tall taller tallest
     
one syllable with the spelling consonant + single vowel + consonant: double the final consonant:
fat fatter fattest
big bigger biggest
sad sadder saddest
Number of syllables Comparative Superlative
two syllables + -er OR more + adj + -est OR most + adj
ending in: -y, -ly, -ow
ending in: -le, -er or -ure
these common adjectives - handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet
happy happier/ more happy happiest/ most happy
yellow yellower/ more yellow yellowest/ most yellow
simple simpler/ more simple simplest/ most simple
tender tenderer/ more tender tenderest/ most tender
     
If you are not sure, use MORE + OR MOST +
Note: Adjectives ending in '-y' like happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc:. replace the -y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative form
busy busier busiest
     
Number of syllables Comparative Superlative
three syllables or more more + adj most + adj
important more important most important
expensive more expensive most expensive

Examples

  • A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest
  • A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest
  • A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable

Order of Adjectives

Rules

Where a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the adjective. The usual order is:
Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material
Value/opinion delicious, lovely, charming
Size small, huge, tiny
Age/Temperature old, hot, young
Shape round, square, rectangular
Colour red, blonde, black
Origin Swedish, Victorian, Chinese
Material plastic, wooden, silver

Examples:

  • a lovely old red post-box
  • some small round plastic tables
  • some charming small silver ornaments

Function of Adjectives

Adjectives can:

Describe feelings or qualities:

Examples

  • He is a lonely man
  • They are honest people
Give nationality or origin:

Examples

  • Pierre is French
  • This clock is German
  • Our house is Victorian
Tell more about a thing's characteristics:

Examples

  • A wooden table.
  • The knife is sharp.
Tell us about age:

Examples

  • He's young man
  • My coat is very old
Tell us about size and measurement:

Examples

  • John tall man.
  • This is a very long film.
Tell us about colour:

Examples

  • Paul wore a red shirt.
  • The sunset was crimson and gold.
Tell us about material/what something is made of:

Examples

  • It was a wooden table
  • She wore a cotton dress
Tell us about shape:

Examples

  • A rectangular box
  • A square envelope
Express a judgement or a value:

Examples

  • A fantastic film
  • Grammar is boring.

FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVES

Form of Adjectives

Rules
1. Adjectives are invariable:
They do not change their form depending on the gender or number of the noun.
A hot potato
Some hot potatoes
2. To emphasise or strengthen the meaning of an adjective use 'very' or 'really':
A very hot potato
Some really hot potatoes.

Position of adjectives

 
a) Usually in front of a noun: A beautiful girl.
b) After verbs like "to be", "to seem" , "to look", "to taste":
Examples
  • The girl is beautiful
  • You look tired
  • This meat tastes funny.

c) After the noun: in some fixed expressions:
Examples
  • The Princess Royal
  • The President elect
  • a court martial



d) After the noun with the adjectives involved, present, concerned:
Examples
  1. I want to see the people involved/concerned (= the people who have something to do with the matter)
  2. Here is a list of the people present (= the people who were in the building or at the meeting

Be careful! When these adjectives are used before the noun they have a different meaning:
  • An involved discussion = detailed, complex
  • A concerned father = worried, anxious
  • The present situation = current, happening now